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Study and Theory/

The four species

from the bible

Although the Torah does not mention the names of the species or their exact description, the Jews traditionally identify the four species.


"Hadar" - is the etrog - a fruit similar to lemon.

"Lulav" - soft branches of the palm tree.

"Myrtle" – a bough that has a good scent.

"Arava" - grows near streams.


Arava, Hadas Lulav Etrog

The midrash finds symbolism in the four-agricultural species on Sukkot:

The etrog – that has both a scent and taste - is similar to those who observe the Torah and do good deeds.

The lulav - which has a good taste but does not have a scent, resembles those who observe the Torah, but do not do good deeds.

The Hadas - which that has a pleasant scent, but has no taste, is similar to those who do good deeds, but do not observe the Torah.

The Arava - which has neither taste nor smell, is similar to those who do not do good deeds, and do not observe the Torah.


The Mitzva of the four species may be complete only if all of them are held together, so also the children of Israel. Although they may differ from one another, they always remain connected.

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